As of Friday night it was unclear whether separatist leaders â who hours earlier exulted at the independence declaration â would resist. The mood in the city of Barcelona was a mix of intense joy and subdued trepidation.
âWe believe it is urgent to listen to Catalan citizens, to all of them, so that they can decide their future and nobody can act outside the law on their behalf,â Mr. Rajoy said.
The steps announced by Mr. Rajoy mean Spain will take direct control over one of the countryâs autonomous regions for the first time since Spain embraced democracy under the 1978 Constitution.
At the end of what he called âa sad dayâ for Spaniards, Mr. Rajoy assured them that he had the means to end a secessionist threat that, he said, was based on âlies, frauds and impositions.â
He removed the Catalan leader, Carles Puigdemont, and his cabinet, as well the director general of the autonomous police force. He also ordered Cataloniaâs representative offices overseas to close.
In ordering the Catalan Parliament to dissolve, Mr. Rajoy said new regional elections would be held Dec. 21.
Pending the elections and formation of a new regional government, Mr. Rajoy said, Cataloniaâs administration would be run from Madrid.
Fueled by a distinct language and culture as well as economic grievances, aspirations for a separate state have percolated for generations in Catalonia before boiling over this month.
The events on Friday, coming in the chaotic aftermath of an Oct. 1 independence referendum in Catalonia, were greeted variously with anger, concern and elation on both sides, with the prospect of even more volatile confrontations in days ahead as the Spanish government moves to put the steps in place.
Spainâs attorney general may now seek to detain Catalan leaders on grounds of rebellion.
Such moves were likely to turn the boisterous separatist street celebrations that greeted the independence declaration on Friday into mass protests, with one Catalan labor union already calling on workers to stage a general strike on Monday.
During the debate in the regional parliament that preceded their vote for independence, Catalan lawmakers traded accusations and in turn described the occasion as âhistoricâ and âhappy,â or else âtragicâ and a violation of Spainâs Constitution â perhaps the only thing on which both sides agreed.
Within an hour, the Spanish Senate in Madrid voted 214 to 47 to invoke Article 155 of Spainâs Constitution, granting Mr. Rajoy extraordinary powers to seize direct administrative control over the region and remove secessionist politicians, including Mr. Puigdemont, the Catalan leader.
In a speech on Friday before the vote, Mr. Rajoy had said he had âno alternativeâ because Mr. Puigdemont and his separatist government had pursued an illegal and unilateral path that was âcontrary to the normal behavior in any democratic country like ours.â
Undeterred by Mr. Rajoys threat, and after a bitter debate, separatists in the Catalan Parliament passed a resolution to create âa Catalan republic as an independent state.â
Most of the opponents to independence walked out of the chamber in protest before the vote, which the remaining lawmakers held via secret ballot, aware that declaring independence from Spain could risk arrest.
The final tally was 70 in favor, 10 against, and two blank votes.
Since the referendum , Mr. Puigdemont had been squeezed in a tightening vise of his own creation, and seemed at times to contradict his own declarations as he squirmed for a way out.
Mr. Puigdemont, a former small city mayor, was trapped between the demands from Catalan hard-liners to declare independence on one side, and, on the other side, the stiffening response from a Rajoy government determined to preserve the nationâs Constitution and territorial integrity.
Despite pleas for mediation, he and his regionâs independence bid were shunned and condemned, not only by Madrid but also by European Union officials wary of encouraging similarly minded secessionist movements around the Continent.
European leaders made clear on Friday that they would not be recognizing Catalan independence and would support Mr. Rajoy, as leader of one of the blocâs most important member states. Donald Tusk, the president of the European Council, wrote in a Twitter post that ânothing changesâ and âSpain remains our only interlocutor.â
Searching for a compromise, Mr. Puigdemont came close on Thursday to calling early regional elections in hopes of forestalling the drastic measures approved by the Spanish Senate on Friday and preserving Cataloniaâs autonomy.
But Madrid would offer no guarantee that it would not clamp down on the region, Mr. Puigdemont said, as he immediately faced a revolt in his own ranks from secessionist hard-liners who called him a traitor.
After hours of wavering on Thursday, he relented and threw the decision on independence to Catalan lawmakers, who took the fateful plunge on Friday.
Addressing the Catalan Parliament in Spanish, Carlos Carrizosa, a lawmaker from Ciudadanos, a party that opposes secession, told Mr. Puigdemont and separatist lawmakers that, far from creating a new Catalan republic, âyou will go down in history for having fractured Catalonia and for sinking the institutions of Catalonia.â
In front of the assembly, he tore apart a copy of the independence resolution. âYour job is not to promise unrealizable dreams but to improve the daily lives of people,â he said.
Before the independence vote, Marta Rovira, a separatist lawmaker, told the assembly that âtoday we start on a new pathâ to build âa better country.â She added, âWe are creating a country free of repression.â
Catalan lawmakers who voted for independence could face prosecution for sedition, or even rebellion.
Marta Ribas, a Catalan lawmaker, said that Madridâs use of Article 155 was unjustified, but also argued that âitâs a mistake to respond to one outrageous act with another outrageous act.â
She added, âA declaration of independence wonât protect us from the 155, quite the contrary.â
In the streets outside the Catalan Parliament in Barcelona, not far from a boisterous pro-independence rally, a few Catalans quietly expressed similar frustrations.
The Oct. 1 referendum did not give the Catalan government the legitimacy to vote to secede, said Federico Escolar, 53, a cafe owner.
âMost of the people who would have voted no did not participate,â Mr. Escolar said, while smoking a cigarette outside his cafe. âIt was not a proper referendum. It was illegal.â
Walking into a nearby subway station, Cristina Juana, a 38-year-old social worker, agreed.
âNeither Puigdemont nor the Catalan government knows exactly what the Catalan peopleâs opinion is,â Ms. Juana said.
Before the Catalan Parliamentâs vote for independence on Friday, large crowds had gathered outside in anticipation of what they hoped would be a historic day for Catalonia.
Many were draped in flags as they watched the parliamentary debate on two large screens, cheering during speeches by pro-independence lawmakers and hissing those of their opponents. When proceedings hit a lull, the crowds cycled through a series of pro-independence chants.
âSpanish occupiers!â was one, a reference to the national police officers who tried to stop the Oct. 1 referendum by force. âLeave Catalonia!â