â¢ India and Pakistan gained independence from Britain in August 1947, but Kashmir initially decides to remain independent
â¢ The two countries go to war over the territory for the first time in October 1947.
â¢ India and Pakistan agree to withdraw all troops behind a mutually agreed ceasefire line on 1 January 1949, later known as the Line of Control.
â¢ The two countries go to war again in August 1965 when Pakistan invades Indian-held Kashmir, but the fighting produces little territorial gain.
â¢ Both sides withdraw from the disputed territory in January 1966.
â¢ Fighting erupts between India and Pakistan in 1971, ending in July the following year with the Simla Agreement, which establishes the Line of Control. However, the two sides continue to argue over the border.
â¢ There is conflict again in May 1999 when armed invaders cross the Line of Control into Indian-administered town of Kargil. India regained possession of the town two months later.
â¢ After years of de-escalation, tensions rise in 2016 when 18 Indian soldiers are killed in an attack by armed militants in Indian-administered Kashmir on September 19.