Arkansas executed a death-row inmate late Thursday in the stateâs fourth lethal injection in eight days, concluding a frantic execution schedule officials said was necessaryÂ to carry out death sentences before one of their drugs expired.
This latest execution, the last one on the schedule in Arkansas,Â prompted immediate questions and calls for an investigationÂ after media witnesses said the inmate lurched and convulsed during the lethal injection.
The aggressive timetable in Arkansas drew international attentionÂ and criticism, pushing the stateÂ into the epicenter of American capital punishment as authoritiesÂ attempted to carry out an unprecedented wave of executions. Court orders ultimately blocked half of the scheduled lethal injections, including a second that had also beenÂ scheduled for Thursday night, even as the state was able to resume executions for the first time in more than a decade.
The execution of Kenneth Williams, who was convicted of killing a man he fatally shot after escaping from a prison where he was serving a life sentence for another killing, came late Thursday after his attorneys appealed to the Supreme Court, arguing that he was intellectually disabled and not fit to be executed. Arkansas officials pushed back, saying these attorneys were only trying to delay his lawful sentence.
Relatives of another of Williamsâs victims â a truck driver killed whileÂ Williams fled from police in a car chase following his prison escape â also pleaded for hisÂ life, askingÂ the governor to call off the execution.
These pleas went unanswered, and Williams, 38, was executed shortly after 11 p.m., according to the Associated Press, which has reporters serve as media witnesses in Arkansas. MediaÂ witnesses told reporters at the prisonÂ that during the execution, Williams briefly convulsed and moved while on the gurney after a sedative, the first lethal injection drug, was administered.
The AP reporter serving as a media witness said Williamsâs body lurched forward â15 times in quick succession, then another five times at a slower rate,â about three minutes into the lethal injection process.Â This movement â described as âlurching, jerking, convulsing and coughingâ in the AP account â lasted for about 20 seconds, and the AP reporter said it could be heard in the viewing room through the glass window into the execution chamber.
According to the APâs account, Williams continued to breathe heavily for another few minutes until his breathing stopped about four minutes after the lurching. He remained still for the rest of the execution and was pronounced dead at 11:05 p.m.
A spokesman for the stateâs governor described the movements as anÂ âinvoluntary muscular reactionâ to one of the drugs used, according to the AP.Â Attorneys for Williams called the accounts of the execution âhorrifyingâ and asked for a full investigation.
âWe tried over and over again to get the state to comport with their own protocol to avoid torturing our client to death, and yet reports from the execution witnesses indicate that Mr. Williams suffered during this execution,â Shawn Nolan, a federal public defender representing Williams, said in a statement early Friday.
Nolan said the accounts of Williams convulsing were âvery disturbing, but not at all surprising, given the history of the risky sedative midazolam, which has been used in many botched executions.â
Arkansas officials usedÂ midazolam, a common sedative, as the oneÂ of three drugs in their lethal injections. The sedative hasÂ been controversial when used in executions, particularly after itÂ was utilizedÂ in a bungled execution in Oklahoma and in lethal injections that were prolonged and sawÂ inmates gasping for breath in Ohio, Arizona and, most recently, in Alabama in December.
In the Oklahoma execution, officials later blamed a botched 2014 execution on a misplaced IV, while a lethalÂ injection in Arizona the same year that lasted nearly two hours. The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the use of the drug in Oklahomaâs protocol in 2015, just daysÂ before Arkansas obtained its stock of the drug.
ArkansasÂ authorities had said theirÂ schedule was necessary because their stock of midazolam expiresÂ at the end of April. Pointing to an ongoing shortage of lethal injection drugs, sparked in part by drug companiesâ objections to their products being used to kill people, officials said they had no guarantee of obtaining more drugs and needed to carry out the sentences of eight men convicted of capital murder, some decades ago.
Rita Sklar,Â executive director of the American Civil Liberty Union of Arkansas, called for an investigation into whether the state âtorturedâ Williams during the execution process.
âReports that Kenneth Williams coughed, convulsed, and lurched during his execution raise serious questions about whether the state, in its rush to use up its supply of midazolam before it expired, has violated the Eighth Amendmentâs prohibition on cruel and unusual punishment,â Sklar said in a statement.
WilliamsâsÂ lethal injection was pushed further into the night after hisÂ attorneys sought a stay from the U.S. Supreme Court, but the justices denied the requests shortly after 10 p.m. without explanation or any noted dissents.
TheÂ execution ends a tumultuous period in Arkansas, which had long sought to resume executions after last carrying out a death sentence in 2005. Gov. Asa Hutchinson (R) originally set eight executions to occur during an 11-day span, a timetable without equal in the modern history of the death penalty in the United States, sparking concerns about the pace and the possibility of mistakes.
This schedule prompted a flurry of legal challenges, both from the death-row inmates and drug companies. Court orders halted four of the planned executions, including three of the first four scheduled last week, but state officials continued their legal battle in state and federal court for the remaining lethal injections on the calendar.
Before Thursday night, Arkansas carried out three other executions this month. Last week, the state executed its first death-row inmate in 12 years and then, on Monday night, officials put two inmates to death in the countryâs first back-to-back lethal injections in nearly two decades. After Williamsâs execution, it is unclear when Arkansas will next attempt to carry out sentences for the 29 men remaining on death row.
Williams, the youngest death-row inmate to die under the schedule Hutchinson approved, was executed at the same prisonÂ he escaped from in 1999. While serving a life sentence for killing Dominique Herd, an 18-year-old cheerleader, he hid in a garbage truck and escaped, according to court records.
Williams arrived at the home of Cecil Boren, who lived near Grady, Ark., not far from the prison, and found the man working on his car. Williams fatally shot him, dragged his body to a bayou and fled with his car, according to court filings, and was only captured after a car chase that killed Michael Greenwood, a truck driver.
Attorneys for Williams said he suffered an intellectual impairment and that he changed in prison, becoming an ordained minister. Relatives of those people whose lives he cut short took sharply different views on whether his execution was warranted.
Genie Boren, who was at church when her husband was killed, lives in the same home where he was attacked, just two miles from the Cummins Unit prison where Arkansas executions take place. Boren said she planned to witness Williamsâs execution.
âYears ago, I said I probably would not attend that, because thatâs not something that I thought Iâd want to see, somebody die,â Boren, 73, said in a recent telephone interview. âMy girls and I decided that we should do that, that we should attend.â
Boren said she regularly drives by the prison. âI always look over that way, because I know heâs there,â Boren said. âAnd once heâs gone, Iâll know heâs gone.â
Relatives of Greenwood, though, pleaded for Williamsâs life on Thursday. They asked the governor to stay his execution, saying that they do not want him put to death and do not want more suffering.
Kayla Greenwood, who was 5 when her father was killed, wrote a letter to Hutchinson asking for him to call off the execution. She also reached out to Williamsâs relatives after seeing media reports about Williamsâs daughter wanting to see him and introduce him to her daughter, Williamsâs grandchild.
Greenwood said her family decided to pay for plane tickets so Williamsâs daughter, Jasmine, could fly from their home near Seattle to Arkansas with her 5-year-old daughter. Greenwood and her relatives â including her mother, Stacey, and the twin boys she was pregnant with when Michael Greenwood was killed â then drove from their homes in Missouri, picked Jasmine and her daughter up from the airport in Little Rock and drove them to the prison about 77 miles away.
Jasmine asked the Greenwood family to wait outside the prison while she visited her father because prison officials would not allow them to visit Williams, Kayla Greenwood said.
âWatching her leave the prison and knowing that was probably their last goodbye broke my heart,â Greenwood wrote in her letter to Hutchinson. âJasmine has done nothing at all, but like me, she could lose her father.â
A spokesman for Hutchinson did not respond to a request for comment earlier Thursday about whether he had received the letter.
In a statement after Williamsâs lethal injections, Hutchinson spoke both to that case and to the executions that have roiled his state.
âThe long path of justice ended tonight and Arkansans can reflect on the last two weeks with confidence that our system of laws in this state has worked,â he said. âCarrying out the penalty of the jury in the Kenneth Williams case was necessary. There has never been a question of guilt.â
After outlining the facts of Williamsâs case, he also named victims of the other inmates put to death, and said their families âwere finally provided the justice they were promised and they also saw that our system of laws have meaning.â
Attorneys for Williams had triedÂ to have his execution delayed, at one point arguing that one of the stateâs earlier executions was botched and saying it meant his lethal injection should be postponed. Justice Samuel A. Alito Jr., who is assigned cases from the federal circuit covering Arkansas, referred Williamsâs to the full court, which rejected it.
State and federal courts, along with the U.S. Supreme Court, have been repeatedly asked to weigh in on the executions, with inmates filing a volley of stay requests and drug companies unsuccessfully asking judges to keep their drugs from being used.
A federal judge earlier this month blocked one of two executions scheduled for Thursday night, staying it because a state parole board said it would recommend changing that inmateâs sentence to life without parole. The first two executions on the calendar, planned for April 17, wereÂ both stayed by the Arkansas Supreme Court; the U.S. Supreme Court rejected a last-ditch appeal from state officials seeking to carry out one of the death sentences. Two more executions were planned for April 20, and while one wasÂ blocked by the state Supreme Court, the second that night was carried out, breaking the stateâs executionÂ hiatus.
Arkansas quickly returned to the death chamber earlier this week, executing two inmates on Monday night, a feat unseen since Texas carried out a double execution in 2000. Jack H. Jones Jr. and Marcel W. Williams, both convicted of murder, had appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, but those appeals were rejected. Both men described medical issues that their attorneys argued could complicate their lethal injections.
Jones was sentenced to death for raping and killing a bookkeeper named Mary Phillips and severely beating her daughter during the same incident in 1996. Williams was sentenced to death in 1997 for abducting, robbing, raping and killing Stacy Errickson, who was living at Little Rock Air Force base while her husband served overseas.
Jones was executed first. Williamsâs execution, intended to occur not long after, was delayed after his attorneys filed court motions saying that the first lethal injection was botched, prompting a federal judge to briefly stay the second one planned that night.
Williamsâs attorneys said corrections officials struggled while inserting an intravenous central line and then did not follow departmental policy in making sure Jones was unconscious five minutes after they began administering midazolam, the sedative used as the first in the stateâs three-drug protocol. They also said Jones was âmoving his lips and gulping for air.â One media witness said Jonesâs lips moved, âbut only very briefly at the start of the process,â while another also said his lips moved briefly after the sedative was first administered.
Arkansas state officials pushed back on Williamsâs attorneys, arguing that the claims were âinaccurate,â rejecting the description of Jones as gulping for air and moving his lips and saying that âno constitutional violationâ occurred during the lethal injection. U.S. District Judge Kristine Baker, who had issued the temporary stay, later lifted her order after a hearing, and Williams was pronounced dead a little more than three hours after Jones. According to internal logs released by Arkansas officials, Jonesâs execution took 14 minutes and Williamsâs took 17 minutes.
This story, first published at 7 a.m. on Thursday, wasÂ updated throughout the day and into Friday morning with the latest news on the execution.